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Retinoschisis is an eye condition that causes the eye’s retina to split into two layers.
Retino- refers to the retina, while -schisis refers to split. It affects both young and old, males and females.
While retinoschisis is a commonly used name, eye doctors may also refer to it as:
Retina splitting can cause slow vision loss in one of the following:
A person with impaired central vision can have visual acuity (sharpness) between 20/30 and 20/200. The decreased vision happens because of tiny cysts (sac-like blisters).
They form between the separated layers of the retina and damaged nerve tissue. When this occurs, glasses or contact lenses won't be able to improve visual acuity.
A person with retinoschisis can lose some peripheral vision. This is if the inner layer of nerve cells breaks off from the outer layer of cells.
Additionally, there are different types of retinoschisis. The two primary categories include:
The common characteristics of senile retinoschisis include:
The common features of this type of retinoschisis are:
It's crucial to visit an eye care specialist for:
Different diagnostic tools are available. Some people with retinoschisis may be eligible for specific treatments.
Retinoschisis may be confused with other eye diseases. This includes amblyopia or lazy eye.
Speak with an ophthalmologist if retinoschisis runs in your family. If you've been diagnosed with amblyopia, an experienced ophthalmologist can rule it out.
Eye doctors can detect specific clinical characteristics and health conditions.
These may point toward more specified forms of retinoschisis, such as:
Health professionals may use the following terms to describe senile retinoschisis:
This eye disorder affects both males and females in middle age. But it can also appear in some people at an earlier age. A person with degenerative retinoschisis may be asymptomatic.
Often, the diagnosis is incidental. It can occur after a referral to a retinal specialist under the presumptive diagnosis of retinal detachment. This is when there's loosening of a thin layer in the retina.
In typical cases of degenerative retinoschisis, there is a shallow rise of inner retinal layers.
Disease progression is not typical. Many times, it involves the peripheral retina. Many people with this eye disorder do well and only require a follow-up.
The prevalence rate of degenerative retinoschisis is 4% of people aged 40 years and up.American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO)
Juvenile retinoschisis (or congenital X-linked retinoschisis) is a hereditary eye disorder. It affects males. It's a genetic disease of the retina that almost always affects both eyes (bilateral).
When a person develops juvenile retinoschisis, vision worsens early in life. Visual acuity may be between 20/60 and 20/120.
Juvenile retinoschisis is estimated to impact one in 5,000 to 25,000 people. It's one of the leading causes of juvenile macular degeneration.
Tractional retinoschisis is a disorder often confused with tractional retinal detachment.
Some unique characteristics define tractional retinoschisis. These include:
People with diabetes or sickle cell disease may have an increased risk of tractional retinoschisis.
This is a subclassification of retinoschisis. There is a lipid (fat) in color fundus photography and clinical examination.
Color fundus (retinal) photography uses a type of camera to collect color images of the condition of the eye’s interior surface.
Retinoschisis has two primary causes:
Retinoschisis can occur in males who have a mutation or abnormal gene on the X chromosome. While females can be carriers of the mutation, it's not common for them to develop this eye disorder.
One of the two X chromosomes in females is inactivated (usually that with the mutation).
As a result, there is no consequential clinical manifestation. Males with X-linked disorders like retinoschisis will pass the abnormal gene to all of their daughters.
It's uncommon to find this eye disorder among people younger than 40.
Degenerative retinoschisis often occurs in people in their 50s, 60s, or 80s.
Yes. Retinoschisis can be hereditary.
Juvenile retinoschisis is the genetic form of this retinal disease.
Males are the most affected by the condition. But females can still be carriers of the recessive trait.
Men with congenital retinoschisis will pass along the X chromosome with the abnormal gene to their daughters.
A central database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) provides a detailed and up-to-date list of symptoms related to retinoschisis.
According to the HPO, approximately 80 to 90% of people with juvenile retinoschisis will have:
According to the HPO, approximately 30 to 79% of people with juvenile retinoschisis will have:
A split retina is a serious condition.
It's not common for retinoschisis to progress or result in retinal detachment. However, if there is disease progression, symptoms may appear before the loss of central vision, including:
Affected individuals with retinoschisis should visit their local eye clinic at least once a year to make sure the eye disorder remains stable.
Retinoschisis isn't something that should be left untreated. The condition presents potential complications.
Yes. In severe cases, retinoschisis can cause blindness.
Severe complications can happen, such as:
Finally, the risk of legal blindness is higher in those with juvenile retinoschisis.
In cases of senile retinoschisis, the eye disorder rarely progresses.
For juvenile retinoschisis, vision often decreases at a young age. It becomes stable during early or mid-adulthood.
It's also common for people with juvenile retinoschisis to experience another decline in vision when they’re in their 50s or 60s.
An eye care specialist will use different diagnostic approaches for retinoschisis, including:
This test uses light waves to create images of the retina.
This test measures light-stimulated electrical impulses, which determine if there’s an impairment of retinal functioning.
This diagnostic tool can help view abnormalities if the eye has suffered a hemorrhage.
Concerning treatment, it can vary according to the form of the eye disorder:
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