An eye prescription is a written order for corrective lenses, written by an optometrist, ophthalmologist, or optician. An eye prescription includes the patient’s name, the date that the prescription was issued, the specifications for vision correction, when the prescription expires, and the prescriber’s name, contact number, and signature.
An eye prescription may include any of the following abbreviations:
The numbers listed on the prescription refer to the focusing power prescribed. The unit of measurement is called a diopter. A positive number (indicated by a ‘+’ sign), indicates farsightedness, or hyperopia. A negative number (indicated by a ‘-’ sign) indicates nearsightedness, or myopia.
On an eye prescription, 0.00 represents good vision that doesn’t need focusing power. The numbers indicate the level of severity of your nearsightedness or farsightedness. Generally, the further away from zero (whether the number is positive or negative), the worse the eyesight and the greater the need for vision correction. A number between +/-.025 to +/-2.00 is considered mild, a number between +/-2.25 to +/- 5.00 is considered moderate, and a number greater than +/- 5.00 is considered severe.
Eye prescriptions can change over time. Visual acuity, or sharpness of vision, may decrease gradually over time, caused by aging or other eye conditions such as astigmatism or amblyopia (lazy eye). Many adults experience presbyopia, or age-related farsightedness, as early as their 40s. Many gradual changes are normal as the flexibility of the natural lens changes over time.
Sudden, abrupt changes in vision, however, may be the sign of serious eye disease. If you experience a sudden dramatic change in vision, please visit your medical provider for an eye exam immediately.
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No eye prescription should be considered ‘bad’. However, different prescriptions refer to different levels of severity of correction needed to restore 20/20 eyesight, or normal vision.
The American Academy of Ophthalmology uses the following benchmarks to classify the severity of nearsightedness or farsightedness:
In most states, drivers need to have a 20/40 vision or better with vision correction for an unrestricted driver’s license.
The World Health Organization has several benchmarks of visual impairment. These are defined by when the vision in the better eye with vision correction is below a certain threshold. Any vision below 20/70 with corrective lenses is considered visual impairment.
In the United States, an individual has legal blindness if their vision with glasses or contacts is 20/200 or worse.
Astigmatism is a common eye problem that causes blurry or distorted vision. This happens when the cornea or the lens of the eye has a different shape than normal. Astigmatism is a refractive error, like farsightedness or nearsightedness.
Common symptoms of astigmatism include:
Astigmatism is indicated on a prescription as part of the cylindrical (CYL) correction. If there is no number under CYL, it means there is no astigmatism, or the astigmatism is so slight that it doesn’t need to be corrected.
Mild astigmatism may not need to be corrected. But if astigmatism gets worse, it may be a sign of keratoconus or another serious eye disease. An eye doctor can determine if astigmatism requires treatment and what type of treatment is best.
Astigmatism is commonly treated with eyeglasses and contact lenses. Laser surgery is also used to treat astigmatism.
Medical professionals recommend that adults ages 19 to 40 with vision problems should get their eyes checked at least every two years. Adults older than 40 should get their eyes checked once a year.
Treatments for bad eyesight include corrective lenses or eyeglasses, contact lenses, LASIK surgery, low-dose atropine, and orthokeratology.
A person with 20/200 eyesight needs to be within 20 feet of an object (or letters on a Snellen chart) to see it clearly. However, a person with normal vision can see the object clearly from 200 feet away.
A visual acuity of 20/200 is roughly equal to a prescription of -2.50 diopters.
Eye doctors can't convert visual acuity (like 20/200) to an exact prescription, they can only give you a rough idea. Many different uncorrected prescriptions can yield a visual acuity of 20/200. The only way to know for sure is to have your eye doctor check.
If you have a visual acuity of 20/200 or worse (after putting corrective lenses on), you are considered legally blind. If the glasses or contacts improve your visual acuity, you are not legally blind.
A visual acuity of -4.00 is roughly equivalent to 20/400 vision. A person with 20/400 eyesight needs to be within 20 feet of an object to see it clearly. However, a person with normal vision can see the object clearly from 400 feet away.
A +1.25 prescription (which means you are farsighted) is a mild refractive error. Glasses, contacts, or even LASIK can easily correct this condition.
It depends. A contact prescription of -6.50 does not mean you are legally blind if your vision improves from 20/200 with them in. However, if you still have 20/200 eyesight or worse after putting contacts in, you are considered legally blind.
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