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Antihistamine eye drops are a form of liquid medication for eye allergy relief. They are taken topically and applied directly to the affected eye.
Eye allergies are caused by numerous environmental stimulants, such as dust, pollen, pet dander, and occasionally even contact lenses.
In addition to antihistamine eye drops, other types of eye drops are used to treat eye conditions not caused by common allergies. These include anti-inflammatory, decongestant, and multiple-action eye drops.
Some of these eye drops require a prescription. However, most antihistamine eye drops do not, including leading medications such as Pataday, Alaway, and Zaditor.
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Antihistamine eye drops are used to prevent and treat itchy eyes caused by allergies, including seasonal allergies and conjunctivitis.
In addition to itchiness, antihistamine eye drops help alleviate red eyes, swollen eyelids, and a feeling of something inside the eye, which are other symptoms caused by common allergens.
In the case of any underlying issues, such as glaucoma, you should consult your eye doctor before starting any new eye drops.
This specific type of eye drops is usually recommended as a first line of treatment for eye allergies, especially if oral antihistamines are not effective. Most people with itchy, watery eyes caused by histamine reactions from allergens will benefit from short term usage of antihistamine eye drops.
For patients with underlying eye issues or those who believe allergens do not cause their eye conditions, immediate medical attention should be sought.
Side effects of antihistamine eye drops are generally mild and can include:
There are many different types of antihistamine eye drops. Some have the same active ingredients with differing dosages, while others are composed of various medicinal components.
There is no clear choice for which is best for you, given that people react differently to each medication. Below is more information on several types of over-the-counter eye drops to help you make a more informed decision.
Ketotifen fumarate is a type of antihistamine used to treat allergic conjunctivitis symptoms by blocking the release of histamines, which are naturally occurring substances that cause allergic reactions. It is ideal for eye itch relief as it also acts as a mast cell stabilizer, which helps to further prevent allergic reactions.
Many leading eye drop brands are composed of ketotifen fumarate, though there are also numerous generic options available for this leading type of antihistamine medication.
Below are several common brands that utilize ketotifen fumarate as the main active ingredient.
Zaditor is a prescription-strength antihistamine eye drop formula that is available over-the-counter. It targets itchy eyes at the source with a powerful antihistamine.
Unlike some other antihistamine eye drops, Zaditor does not contain a vasoconstrictor, which is often used as a redness reliever for clear eyes but is not recommended for regular use. There are also similar Zaditor generic brands and options available that work in the same way as the brand name equivalent.
Alaway eye drops are manufactured by Bausch & Lomb. They are clinically tested to relieve itchy eyes for up to 12 hours, and they begin to work in less than three minutes.
Epinastine is another type of antihistamine eye drop that is also a mast cell stabilizer. It is used to treat allergic conjunctivitis, much like ketotifen eye drops. Epinastine targets highly selective receptors, and, as a result, it never crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is manufactured by Allergan. Pataday used to be prescription only, but is now available OTC.
National Center for Biotechnology Information (2020). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 5282408, Ketotifen fumarate. Retrieved November 29, 2020 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Ketotifen-fumarate.
American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (2020). AAAAI Allergy & Asthma Medication Guide. AAAAI. https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/drug-guide/eye-medications
American Academy of Ophthalmology (2019). Eye Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment. AAO. September. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/allergies-diagnosis
American College of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Eye Allergy. ACAAI. https://acaai.org/allergies/types/eye-allergy